By Ellysar Baroudy, Abderrafii Lahlou Abid, Bayoumi Attia
The tremendous arid and semi-arid areas of the center East and North Africa zone (MENA) represent eighty five% of the region's land sector and are domestic to nearly 60% of the region's inhabitants. constrained water assets pose critical constraints on people's fiscal and social development, checking out their resilience and dangerous their livelihoods. Rainfall is not just scarce and unpredictable, however the sector is additionally topic to widespread and serious droughts. on hand floor water is declining and the over-pumping of groundwater past average recharge premiums is going on, decreasing the water desk and inflicting a rise in groundwater salinity and ecological degradation. Water call for administration (WDM) is set governance and instruments that encourage humans and their actions to manage the quantity and demeanour during which they entry, use and cast off water to relieve strain on freshwater provides. it's also approximately conserving water caliber. the improvement and promoting of such WDM practices, basically for governments within the heart East and North Africa (MENA) sector, have constituted the center ambitions supported via Canada?s overseas improvement learn Centre (IDRC) and its companions throughout the Water call for administration boards. coping with Water call for offers a finished account of the instruments used to regulate water call for within the MENA quarter. A serious evaluate is gifted of the efficacy of WDM ideas within the parts of wastewater reuse, water valuation, public-private partnerships and decentralization, and participatory irrigation administration. This publication will offer a number of the precious wisdom required to additional advertise WDM within the MENA area, whereas offering perception into the paintings required for far wanted switch to enhance water governance.
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Additional info for Managing Water Demand: Policies, Practices And Lessons from the Middle East And North Africa Forums
In some cases, it was shown that a 21% increase in tariffs led to a 5% drop in water consumption and a 38% increase in crop intensification. This amounts to a 32% saving in water, achieved largely through greater crop intensification and, consequently, greater efficiency. In some cases, the scarcity of water combined with a hike in water tariffs led farmers to employ water-saving irrigation techniques, particularly localized drip irrigation. In Tunisia, the price elasticity of demand for agricultural water is relatively low, but it varies by region (Hamdane, 2002).
Starting with the assumption that the level of consumption is a function of household income, this system keeps prices relatively low for small consumers connected to the network (the price for the first “block” is below production costs in Morocco, and is only about 25% of delivery costs in Tunisia). The water agency offsets this shortfall by charging a fairly high price for successive blocks. In Tunisia, the price for the last block, which is set to reflect the long-term marginal cost, is around six times the "social" tariff, and in the case of sanitation it is 20 times higher (Limam, 2002).
Morocco has launched an ambitious program of concession for water and electricity distribution, and sanitation services. This is expected to produce major investments and significant improvements in service. Tariff policies applied to concession contracts preclude any subsidies from authorities, and yet there are significant investment programs underway. This may reflect the emergence of synergies, since drinking water and electricity as well as sanitation services are now managed under concessions.