By Bimal Krishna Matilal
This landmark vintage marks the start of a brand new method of Indian philosophy. whereas older techniques have been born from the belief that serious considering used to be unknown to the East and all philosophical undertaking was once assumed to be a manifestation of non secular doctrine or a sort of mysticism, Matilal brilliantly succeeds in dispelling those assumptions and so opens up the wealthy traditions of Indian philosophical research to the trendy reader.
Is fact truly knowable and accordingly expressible in language? Matilal locates his research during this significant debate and brings in Indian philosophical texts as pivotal, canonical statements of epistemological and methodological relevance. This version comprises additions and alterations made by means of Matilal in his own replica. Edited and with a preface by way of Jonardon Ganeri, the amount is a lucid creation to the various legacy of Indian philosophical analysis.
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Extra info for Epistemology, Logic and Grammar in Indian Philosophical Analysis
Each name, as Diimaga understands it, dichotornizes the universe into two : those to which it can be applied and those to which it cannot be applied. The function of a name is to EXCLUDE the obj ect from the class of those obj ects to which it cannot be applied. One might s ay that the function of a name is to LOCATE the obj ect outside the class of thos e t o which i t cannot be applied. There i s one advantage i n taking a negative approach and using the term ' exclude' rather than using a positive expression such as 'locate ' .
Hence, it is not proper to regard cow (or, ing the cow particular. Again, our metaphorical use of words cannot be justified unless we hold that the word designates ' quality' and not ' substanc e ' , that is , the particular. 27 All thes e arguments of Diimaga are directed against the name-tag theory of meaning, upheld by the earlier Naiyayikas and, perhaps, by Vya<;li (before the Naiyayikas). S anskrit unfortunately has only one word artha which can ambiguously stand for 'meaning ' of ' significa tion ' or 'denotation' or ' connotation' .
29 Exclusion, in the context of the premise that there are mutually exclusive classes which taken together exhaust the whole universe of discours e, might imply ' inclusion' . For example, if we ex clude something, some particular, from class A, it must be included in some other class such as class B or e, provided we assume that classes A , B, C, in chap. . exhaust the universe of discourse . (Cf. ) 29 For further remarks on negation, see chap. 6. Perception and Language 23 S ince all class concepts are fictional, if we DENY the claim of a parti cular to be associated with some class concepts we thereby do not com mit ourselves to the admission of its claim to be associated with another class conc ept.