By Masayasu Ishiguro, Takamasa Akiyama
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Additional resources for Energy demand in five major Asian developing countries: structure and prospects, Parts 63-277
In addition to the generation losses, high T&D losses in four of the five countries (the exception is Korea) also reduce power supply capacities. The losses are generally 2 to 4 times higher than those in Germany and Japan. In India T&D losses waste for more than 20 percent of the electricity generated in Japan. 6 percent. If T&D losses in India were reduced to the levels found in industrialized countries, demand for new power generation capacity would be reduced more than 15 percent. These large T&D losses are caused mainly by (a) the low voltage of T&D lines, (b) too many voltage step-downs, and (c) poor maintenance.
A. 0 percent increase in energy demand in the OECD countries. ) was considerably higher than in any other region in the world. As a result the share of Asian developing countries in world energy consumption increased from 8 percent in 1970 to 11 percent in 1980 and 15 percent in 1990. It is expected that this trend will continue. The causes of this rapid increase included high rates of economic growth, high energy intensities, the rapid pace of industrialization, a growing proportion of energy-intensive industries in the industrial sector, rapid electrification of industries and households, and rapid motorization.
Medium-term price elasticities in the industrial and agricultural sectors were found to be significant and varied considerably from one subsector to another. 0. In many of the subsectors in the industrial sector, elasticities were affected by prices 3 years earlier, implying that it takes many industries at least 3 years to adjust energy consumption to energy prices. The response time estimated here may be short, especially in the industrial sector, considering that it often takes several years to replace facilities and equipment.