Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, by Simon A. Levin

By Simon A. Levin

The 7-volume Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, moment variation continues the recognition of the extremely popular unique, proposing the most up-tp-date details on hand during this globally an important quarter of study and research. It brings jointly the scale of biodiversity and examines either the companies it presents and the measures to guard it. significant issues of the paintings comprise the evolution of biodiversity, structures for classifying and defining biodiversity, ecological styles and theories of biodiversity, and an review of latest styles and tendencies in biodiversity.
The technological know-how of biodiversity has turn into the technological know-how of our destiny. it truly is an interdisciplinary box spanning components of either actual and existence sciences. Our knowledge of the lack of biodiversity has introduced an extended past due appreciation of the importance of this loss and a decision to improve the instruments to guard our future.
- moment variation contains over a hundred new articles and 226 up-to-date articles protecting this multidisciplinary box- from evolution to behavior to economics, in 7 volumes
- The editors of this variation are all good revered, immediately recognizable teachers working on the most sensible in their respective fields in biodiversity examine readers could be guaranteed that they're studying fabric that has been meticulously checked and reviewed by means of experts
- nearly 1,800 figures and 350 tables supplement the textual content, and greater than 3,000 word list entries clarify key phrases

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, (7 Volume Set)

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112 Terrestrial Ecosystems Stephen Roxburgh and Ian Noble 128 The Global Environment Facility: Financing the Stewardship of Global Biodiversity Mark Zimsky, Gustavo Fonseca, Jaime Cavelier, Dirk Gaul, Jean-Marc Sinnassamy, Yoko Watanabe, and Ming Yang 136 The Multiple Benefits of River–Floodplain Connectivity for People and Biodiversity Jeffrey J Opperman, Gerald E Galloway, and Stephanie Duvail 144 Thermophiles, Origin of Anna-Louise Reysenbach and Margaret L Rising 161 The Value of Biodiversity Partha Dasgupta, Ann P Kinzig, and Charles Perrings 167 Threatened Birds S Jacob Socolar and David S Wilcove 180 Threatened Species: Classification Systems and Their Applications Rebecca M Miller 191 Timber Industry S Kelloma¨ki, J Kouki, P Niemela¨, and H Peltola 212 Tourism, Role of Ralf Buckley 222 Traditional Conservation Practices Carl Folke and Johan Colding 226 Translocation as a Conservation Strategy Jessica J Hellmann 236 Trends in Nature Recreation: Causes and Consequences Patricia Zaradic and Oliver RW Pergams 241 Trophic Cascades Michael L Pace 258 Trophic Levels Peter Yodzis 264 Tropical Forest Ecosystems Gary S Hartshorn 269 Tropical Forest Regeneration Robin L Chazdon 277 True Bugs and Their Relatives, Diversity of Carl W Schaefer 287 U Ultraviolet Radiation Andrew R Blaustein and Catherine Searle 296 Urban–Suburban Biodiversity Elizabeth M Cook, Rebecca L Hale, Ann P Kinzig, and J Morgan Grove 304 Contents of All Volumes xxxv V Valuing Ecosystem Services Marc N Conte 314 Vents Cindy Lee Van Dover 327 Vertebrates, Overview Carl Gans and Christopher J Bell 333 Vicariance Biogeography Christopher John Humphries 342 W Water Funds: A New Ecosystem Service and Biodiversity Conservation Strategy Rebecca L Goldman-Benner, Silvia Benitez, Alejandro Calvache, Aurelio Ramos, and Fernando Veiga 352 Wetland Creation and Restoration William J Mitsch 367 Wetlands Ecosystems Barbara L Bedford, Donald J Leopold, and James P Gibbs 384 Wildlife Management David Saltz and Gary C White 403 Worms, Annelida Kristian Fauchald 408 Worms, Nematoda Scott Lyell Gardner 420 Worms, Platyhelminthes Janine N Caira and D Timothy J Littlewood 437 Z Zoos and Zoological Parks Anna Marie Lyles and Dan Wharton 470 Glossary 481 Index 547 SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION Agriculture Agricultural Invasions Agriculture, Industrialized Agriculture, Nutrient Management, and Water Quality Agriculture, Sustainable Agriculture, Traditional Agrobiodiversity Aquaculture Biodiversity-Friendly Farming Breeding of Animals Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, Ecological Role of Crop Mixtures and the Mechanisms of Overyielding Domestication of Crop Plants Ecology of Agriculture Feeding the World and Protecting Biodiversity Herbicides Hybridization in Plants Indigenous Strategies Used to Domesticate Plants in Brazilian Amazon Land-Use Changes and CO2 Emissions Due to US Corn Ethanol Production Range Ecology, Global Livestock Influences Resource Exploitation, Fisheries Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of Timber Industry Marine Conservation in a Changing Climate Marine Protected Areas: Static Boundaries in a Changing World Nature-Based Coastal Defenses: Can Biodiversity Help?

Fort Collins, CO, USA Brian J Enquist University of California at Santa Barbara, CA, USA Carl Folke Stockholm University and Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden Terry L Erwin Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA Gustavo Fonseca Global Environment Facility, Washington, DC, USA Genoveva F Esteban Bournemouth University, Poole, UK Peter L Forey The Natural History Museum, London, UK James Estes University of California, CA, USA Jennifer A Fox Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Julie R Etterson University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, USA Richard Frankham Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia w Deceased.

Bregje K van Wesenbeeck, John N Griffin, Mark van Koningsveld, Keryn B Gedan, Michael W McCoy, and Brian R Silliman 451 Near East Ecosystems, Animal Diversity Joseph Heller 459 Near East Ecosystems, Plant Diversity Avinoam Danin 478 Neotropical Seasonally Dry Forests Julio Calvo-Alvarado, Arturo Sa´nchez-Azofeifa, and Carlos Portillo-Quintero 488 Nest Parasitism Scott K Robinson, Stephen I Rothstein, and Brian D Peer 501 Neutral Theory and Beyond James O’Dwyer and Ryan Chisholm 510 Nitrogen Deposition and Terrestrial Biodiversity Christopher M Clark, Yongfei Bai, William D Bowman, Jane M Cowles, Mark E Fenn, Frank S Gilliam, Gareth K Phoenix, Ilyas Siddique, Carly J Stevens, Harald U Sverdrup, and Heather L Throop 519 Nitrogen, Nitrogen Cycle Sandy L Tartowski and Robert W Howarth 537 Nomenclature, Systems of David L Hawksworth 547 North America, Patterns of Biodiversity in Martin J Lechowicz 560 Nucleic Acid Biodiversity: Rewriting DNA and RNA in Diverse Organisms Laura F Landweber, Tamara L Horton, and Jonatha M Gott 568 O Ocean Ecosystems Richard T Barber 581 Oceanic Islands: Models of Diversity Rosemary G Gillespie 590 Oil-Palm Plantations in the Context of Biodiversity Conservation Erik Meijaard and Douglas Sheil 600 Origin and Diversification of Angiosperms William L Crepet 613 Origin of Life, Theories of Susanne Brakmann 628 xxx Contents of All Volumes Origins, Evolution, and Breakdown of Bacterial Symbiosis Joel L Sachs 637 P Paleoecology Thompson Webb 645 Parasitism Klaus Rohde 656 Parasitoids HCJ Godfray 674 Pelagic Ecosystems Andrea Belgrano, Sonia D Batten, and Philip C Reid 683 Pesticides, Uses and Effects of Paul C Jepson 692 Pharmacology, Biodiversity and Paul Alan Cox 703 Phenological Shifts in Animals Under Contemporary Climate Change Marcel E Visser 716 VOLUME 6 Phenotype, a Historical Perspective Robert J Berry 1 Photosynthesis, Mechanisms of John A Raven 9 Phylogeny Kevin C Nixon 16 Plankton, Status and Role of Colin S Reynolds and Judit Padisa´k 24 Plant–Animal Interactions Ellen L Simms 39 Plant Biodiversity, Overview Jeannette Whitton 56 Plant Communities, Evolution of Brian J Enquist, Bruce H Tiffney, John Haskell, and Karl J Niklas 65 Plant Conservation Mike Maunder 76 Plant Invasions David M Richardson and Petr Pysˇek 90 Plant Phenology Changes and Climate Change Tim Sparks and Annette Menzel 103 Plant–Soil Interactions Joan G Ehrenfeld 109 Plant Sources of Drugs and Chemicals William H Gerwick 129 Contents of All Volumes xxxi Pollinators, Role of David W Inouye 140 Pollution, Overview William H Smith 147 Population Density Brian H McArdle 157 Population Diversity, Overview Jennifer BH Martiny 168 Population Dynamics Alan Hastings 175 Population Genetics Brian Charlesworth 182 Population Stabilization, Human Samir KC 199 Population Viability Analysis Hugh P Possingham, Michael A McCarthy, and David B Lindenmayer 210 Poverty and Biodiversity Madhav Gadgil 220 Predators, Ecological Role of James Estes, Kevin Crooks, and Robert D Holt 229 Primate Populations, Conservation of Russell A Mittermeier and Matthew C Richardson 250 Priority Setting for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Derric Pennington, Taylor Ricketts, and Robin Naidoo 261 Property Rights and Biodiversity Susan S Hanna 273 Proteorhodopsins: Widespread Microbial Light-Driven Proton Pumps Oded Be´ja`, Jarone Pinhassi, and John L Spudich 280 Protozoa Bland J Finlay and Genoveva F Esteban 286 Psychrophiles Richard Y Morita and Craig L Moyer 298 R Rainforest Ecosystems, Animal Diversity Gregory H Adler 304 Rainforest Ecosystems, Plant Diversity Ian M Turner 313 Rainforest Loss and Change Karndeo D Singh 322 Range Ecology, Global Livestock Influences J Boone Kauffman and David A Pyke 330 Rare Biosphere Carlos Pedro´s-Alio´ 345 xxxii Contents of All Volumes Recombination Abraham B Korol 353 Reforestation David Lamb 370 Religious Traditions and Biodiversity Fikret Berkes 380 Remote Sensing and Image Processing Ruth DeFries 389 Reptiles, Biodiversity of F Harvey Pough 400 Residents and Transients in the Fossil Record Albert J van der Meulen and Pablo Pela´ez-Campomanes 414 Resource Exploitation, Fisheries John Beddington and Ray Hilborn 420 Resource Partitioning FA Bazzaz and S Catovsky 429 Restoration of Animal, Plant, and Microbial Diversity Edith B Allen, Joel S Brown, and Michael F Allen 438 Restoration of Biodiversity, Overview Joy B Zedler and Roberto Lindig-Cisneros 453 Riparian Landscapes Robert J Naiman, Henri De´camps, and Michael E McClain 461 River Ecosystems KE Limburg, DP Swaney, and DL Strayer 469 Role and Trends of Protected Areas in Conservation Timothy M Boucher, Mark Spalding, and Carmen Revenga 485 Role of Botanic Gardens Peter Wyse Jackson and Lucy A Sutherland 504 S Salmon Michael H Schiewe 522 Scale, Concept and Effects of David Clayton Schneider 532 Seagrasses Carlos M Duarte 540 Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of Stefan Hauser and Lindsey Norgrove 551 Social and Cultural Factors Jeffrey A McNeely 563 Social Behavior Daniel I Rubenstein and Dustin R Rubenstein 571 Soil Biota, Soil Systems, and Processes David C Coleman 580 Soil Conservation Dorota L Porazinska and Diana H Wall 590 Contents of All Volumes xxxiii South American Natural Ecosystems, Status of Philip M Fearnside 599 Southern (Austral) Ecosystems Peter H Weston and Robert S Hill 612 Speciation, Process of Guy L Bush 620 Speciation, Theories of Hope Hollocher 629 Species–Area Relationships EF Conor and ED McCoy 640 Species Assemblages, Macroecology, and Global Change Brian J McGill 651 Species Coexistence Robert D Holt 667 Species, Concepts of James Mallet 679 Species Distribution Modeling Jane Elith and Janet Franklin 692 Species Diversity, Overview A Ross Kiester 706 Species Interactions Jessica J Hellmann 715 VOLUME 7 Stability, Concept of Clarence L Lehman 1 Stewardship, Concept of Peter Alpert 12 Storage, Ecology of Caroline M Pond 23 Stress, Environmental John Cairns Jr.

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