By Albert D. Wheelon
Electromagnetic Scintillation describes the part and amplitude fluctuations imposed on indications that commute throughout the surroundings. the 2 volumes of Electromagnetic Scintillation will represent a latest reference and entire instructional, treating either optical and microwave propagation and integrating measurements and predictions at every one step of the improvement. this primary quantity offers with section and angle-of-arrival size mistakes, correctly defined through geometrical optics and may be through a moment quantity on susceptible scattering. during this e-book, measured homes of tropospheric and ionsopheric irregularities are reviewed first. Electromagnetic fluctuations triggered through those irregularities are then envisioned for quite a lot of functions.
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Additional info for Electromagnetic Scintillation: Volume 1, Geometrical Optics
We concentrate first on the wide wavenumber range that lies between the energyinput region and the energy-loss region. This is the inertial range and it can be described by a universal theory based on physical principles. Kolmogorov found the solution using dimensional analysis . His technique requires that we first identify the physical parameters which influence the region. 53) is the first important parameter. 5. Kolmogorov assumed that the velocity fluctuations are both isotropic and homogeneous in the inertial range.
This allows the propagation integrals to operate on the universal harmonic term exp[iκ . (r1 − r2 )]. The resulting propagation integrals can be done analytically in almost all cases of practical interest. They generate terms that depend only on the wavenumber vector κ and on the characteristics of the transmitted signal. 45) The enormous leverage of this approach is now apparent. The problem has been separated into two distinct modules. The medium is completely described by the turbulence spectrum Φn (κ).
The challenge is to find the velocity spectrum E(κ). 5. We describe that process in terms of the flow of energy. A small fraction of the kinetic energy in the ambient wind field is converted into turbulence energy at large scale lengths. This conversion is done by mechanisms that are neither specified nor understood. Fortunately the details of the external source do not matter very much to the later stages of the decay. The interesting portion of the energy cascade begins at the outer scale wavenumber at which the eddy size is equal to the outer scale length L0 .