Educational Psychology (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Sternberg

By Robert J. Sternberg

Written to assist readers comprehend and improve services in either instructing and studying, academic Psychology specializes in the paintings and technological know-how essential to develop into knowledgeable instructor.   well known students, Sternberg and Williams aid readers capitalize on their strengths via integrating questions into the textual content that motivate analytical, artistic, and useful considering. This framework, in keeping with Sternberg’s triarchic idea of human intelligence, is helping make sure that readers imagine deeply approximately what they're studying, instead of in basic terms processing details at a superficial point.

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Once they enter a stage, they never go back to a previous one. Subsequent stages build on previous ones, so full development of one stage becomes the basis for the equilibrations that lead to the next stage. 2 How the processes of assimilation and accommodation combine in the mechanism of equilibration. (1) Banging as a scheme. (2) Assimilation occurs when the (3) Accommodation occurs when the child child includes the new object in the scheme. cannot fit the new object into the scheme (1) 42 CHAPTER (2) 2 (3) THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE, LEARNING, AND LANGUAGE SKILLS S ENS ORIMOTOR S TAGE The sensorimotor stage, occurring between birth and about age 2, is primarily char­ acterized by the development of sensory (simple input) and motor (simple output) functions.

At the same time, understanding the role of learning allows an expert teacher to recognize when a child's experiences have not prepared him or her for a lesson. In this case, pushing will do little good-the child needs more experiences to become ready to move forward. CANALIZATION: A KEY TO TEACHING The difference between maturation and learning is not as clear as it might seem. In the world around us, it appears that the environment affects much of the development of behavior. The concept of canalization describes the extent to which a behavior or an underlying ability develops without respect to the environment ( Waddington, 1 956).

1 TH I N K I N G C R E A T I V ELY Give an example of one highly canalized skill and one weakly canalized skill that would be important in the classroom. How might you help children develop these skills? SUGGESTION: Highly canal­ ized: perceptual-motor skills such as hand-eye coordination in inputting text into a com­ puter. Weakly canalized: num­ ber skills. You might help chil­ dren develop perceptual-motor skills by giving them opportuni­ ties to interact with their physi­ cal environment-for example, in after-school computer classes or clubs.

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