Dictionary of Mathematics Terms by Douglas Downing

By Douglas Downing

This quick-reference dictionary for math scholars, lecturers, engineers, and statisticians defines greater than seven-hundred phrases concerning algebra, geometry, analytic geometry, trigonometry, chance, records, good judgment, and calculus. It additionally lists and defines mathematical symbols, contains a short desk of integrals, and describes the best way to derive key theorems. packed with illustrative diagrams and equations.

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Some special values of the combinations formula are: n n a bϭ a bϭ1 0 n n n a bϭ a bϭn 1 nϪ1 Also, in general: n n a bϭ a b j nϪj Counting the number of possible combinations for arranging a group of objects is important in probability. Suppose that both you and your dream lover (whom you’re desperately hoping to meet) are in a class of 20 people, and five people are to be randomly selected to be on a committee. What is the probability that both you and your dream lover will be on the committee?

They are connected by circuits (called gates) that represent the logical operations of NOT, AND, and OR. Here are some rules from Boolean algebra. ” Parentheses are used as they are in arithmetic: an operation inside parentheses is to be done before the operation outside the parentheses. Double Negation: p ↔ NOT (NOT p) Commutative Principle: (p AND q) ↔ (q AND p) (p OR q) ↔ (q OR p) Associative Principle: p AND (q AND r) ↔ (p AND q) AND r p OR (q OR r) ↔ (p OR q) OR r Distribution: p AND (q OR r) ↔ (p AND q) OR (p AND r) p OR (q AND r) ↔ (p OR q) AND (p OR r) De Morgan’s Laws: (NOT p) AND (NOT q) ↔ NOT (p OR q) (NOT p) OR (NOT q) ↔ NOT (p AND q) BOX-AND-WHISKER PLOT 30 Truth tables are a valuable tool for studying Boolean expressions.

Boolean algebra was developed by George Boole in the 1850s; it is an important part of the theory of logic and has become of tremendous importance since the development of computers. Computers consist of electronic circuits (called flip-flops) that can be in either of two states, on or off, called 1 or 0. They are connected by circuits (called gates) that represent the logical operations of NOT, AND, and OR. Here are some rules from Boolean algebra. ” Parentheses are used as they are in arithmetic: an operation inside parentheses is to be done before the operation outside the parentheses.

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