By Jane Kucera
This is the 1st quantity to hide desalination in such intensity and aspect, providing engineers, technicians, and operators complete assurance of the functions, economics, and expectancies of what's going to definitely develop into essentially the most very important water-related techniques at the planet. overlaying thermal tactics and membrane procedures, this can be the single quantity any engineer operating in desalination should have, overlaying either sensible and theoretical concerns encountered on an everyday basis. bound to be an enormous contribution to the water administration community.
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Additional resources for Desalination: Water from Water
43] Can be used to power thermal desalination process directly and to generate power for RO desalination processes. 6 Renewable energy sources (RES) used to replace traditional fossil-fuel based energy sources to drive traditional desalination processes. 7)), these sources show potential for future application in powering desalination. Solar energy is covered in this volume. 30 Desalination Introduction to Desalination 31 that is also cost effective. [45, 46] Inland brackish water facilities use other disposal methods, including discharge to surface water (45%), discharge to sewer (27%), deep well injection (16%), land application (8%), and discharge to evaporation ponds (4%) .
That same year, the MSF distillation patent was issued and in 1959/60, the ﬁrst commercial MSF facilities were installed in Kuwait (19 stages, 4550 m3/d) and the Channel Islands (40 stages, 2775 m3/d) [22, 23]. In 1973, the “standard” MSF units, that produce 27,277 m3/d and consist of 24 stages, were developed . Recent developments in the thermal desalination technology have focused on scale and corrosion control techniques and on the increase in distiller production capacity . Early, pre 1980, MSF units were primarily constructed using carbon steel for the shell and the internals .
6 The Future of Desalination Desalination today is still a capital and energy-intensive proposition. Methods to reduce costs are necessary to make the desalinated water more affordable. To that end, developments to increase the efﬁciency and thereby reduce costs of desalination are needed. 05%) . 6 shows some of the renewable energy sources (RES) currently considered to power desalination processes. • Materials: materials of construction for thermal processes that resist corrosion and reduce the size and weight (and costs) of units need to be developed.