Cinq siècles de pensée française

Ce livre présente l'histoire complexe de l. a. pensée française, une histoire riche, divisée en périodes d'inégales longueurs et d'inégales brillances : il y a l'âge de los angeles découverte de l. a. raison, puis les Lumières, période de rayonnement français s'il en est, avant un XIXe siècle contrasté, aussi rêveur que scientiste et concurrencé par l'université allemande, puis un XXe siècle chahuté par les catastrophes mondiales, où le savoir et l'engagement iront de pair, contre toute sagesse. Cette histoire est aussi celle des figures successives de l'acteur : philosophe, savant, intellectuel, puis chercheur au XXe siècle, le mouvement est celui d'une spécialisation galopante, et d'un écart croissant entre sciences et philosophie. C'est encore celle des lieux de recherche et d'enseignement et des écoles qui en ont été emblématiques : Sorbonne, École des Hautes études en sciences sociales, CNRS ou encore l'École des Annales. Enfin, c'est surtout celle des hommes, et de leurs vies étonnamment diverses. Montaigne se retirant dans son pigeonnier, Saint-Simon se jetant dans les affaires, Claude Lévi-Strauss écrivant une tragédie au bord de l'Amazone sont habités par le même appétit de faire une oeuvre, et y parviendront parce qu'ils savent s'adresser à leur époque, voire à celles qui suivront. Un landscape critique de l. a. pensée française à travers les siècles.

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105–30). 3. For further discussion of Habermas’s conception of detranscendentalized reason and postmetaphysical thinking, see Chapter 2 in this volume. 4. Chapter 7 in this volume further addresses Habermas’s involvement in the student protests. 5. The later Habermas theorizes this phenomenon in terms of the colonization of the lifeworld by the system. See Chapter 4 in this volume. 6. For a discussion of Habermas’s linguistic turn and its development, see Chapter 3. 7. See Chapters 6, 7 and 9, respectively.

Habermas emphasizes further that philosophy is itself 36 P O S T M E TA P H Y S I C A L T H I N K I N G distorted by the drive to purify itself of reliance on the material world. 4 Postmetaphysical philosophy presupposes that there is no such observer-position available for the philosopher because we are all deeply conditioned by our historical contexts. 5 Our linguistic context is one of the most important features of this background, since it makes possible our philosophical projects; for Habermas, there is no way for us to get behind that, so to speak.

5 Our linguistic context is one of the most important features of this background, since it makes possible our philosophical projects; for Habermas, there is no way for us to get behind that, so to speak. 6 This “linguistic turn” in philosophy effectively shifted metaphysical thinking away from the solipsistic philosopher, instead conceiving of philosophy as a communicative process. Postmetaphysical philosophy still occupies a unique position and has a distinctive purpose, however, independent of empirical science.

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