Chuang-Tzu: The Inner Chapters by Zhuangzi, A. C. Graham

By Zhuangzi, A. C. Graham

Author note: Translated by way of A. C. Graham
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The internal Chapters are the oldest items of the bigger number of writings by means of numerous fourth, 3rd, and moment century B.C. authors that represent the vintage of Taoism, the Chuang-Tzu (or Zhuangzi). it's this center of old writings that's ascribed to Chuang-Tzu himself.

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He first discusses Melissus and Parmenides and their followers. 18 He says that, even if these people say other correct things (they really understood correctly and in a divine way the one being and intelligible nature, and they disclosed to their followers that there cannot be knowledge of things that come to be and change because they are always in flux), they ‘should not be considered to speak in a way appropriate to the study of nature’ since they philosophise about hypernatural things. For it is a matter for another , first philosophy, to demonstrate what they demonstrate, namely ‘the existence of some things which do not come to be and are entirely without change’, and it is not a matter for enquiry into nature, which concerns changing things, since nature is a starting point of change Translation 31 and those who do away with change also do away with nature and natural things.

79 He adds what the divisibles in natural bodies are, saying that they are the affections. He says that affections are divisible in two ways: in species as when colour is divided into light and dark, accidentally when that to which the affection belongs is divisible. This second sense is most of all specific to division of affections since there is also division in species in the case of mathematical things. And so, he says, whichever affections are simple, that is, whichever are individual (atomos) and do not contain other things in the way species do are accidentally divisible.

These are Aristotle’s words, but, as I always say, he is objecting to the apparent meaning of the theory. However, it should be said that if those who say that solids are composed of planes and resolve solids into planes said that the planes are mathematical and have only length and breadth, then Aristotle is correct to adduce against them these absurdities and the ones which he adduces next. But if they say that the planes are natural on the grounds that the first natural thing capable of being constructed should have not only length and breadth but also depth, the absurdities adduced against the planes as being without depth do not follow from their position.

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