China’s Search for Modernity: Cultural Discourse in the Late by He Ping

By He Ping

20 years after a go back from fundamentalism to monetary truth, China has develop into the world's 10th biggest economic system and an more and more vital worldwide strength. regardless of the increase of fundamentalism and post-modernism, the pursuit of modernity was once an ongoing old stream in overdue 20th century China. He Ping makes a speciality of China's quest for and adventure of modernity. Implicitly comparative, the writer discusses extensive facets of either chinese language and western civilizations, together with their medical traditions and socio-economic constructions, on the subject of modernization. He seeks to augment our realizing of the cultural alterations at the back of China's exceptional upward push and offers a clean case research for the worldwide cultural discourse.

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In Europe, suzerains entered into formal contracts with their vassals, and these specified minutely the rights and duties of both parties. As long as the vassals could fulfill their duties, the lord was obliged to leave the vassal undisturbed. 51 Documents dated to Western Zhou feudalism (1047–771 BC) seem to support Pang’s view that personal loyalty and dependence characterized Chinese feudalism in contrast to the reciprocal relationships in European feudalism. A Western Zhou document concerning the enfeoffment prescribed the minute provisions and ceremonies as follows:52 (1) Declaration of enfeoffment in ritual ceremony, with the stipulation of the area of the fief, the rank of peerage, the number of serfs, and so on.

The struggle between bewildered princes and kings on the one side and knights, retainers and servants on the other, and the characteristic violence of lay seigniorial nurtured in the economy and sociability of castles brought about a new political regime30 – an example of ‘patrimonial domination’. Interestingly, similar events were witnessed in China from the late Tang until the founding of the Song dynasty. There was little doubt that Chinese scholars’ treatment of the concept of feudalism was very simple.

At the time, one of the two repairing and checking mechanisms, the emperor who supervised the functioning of the bureaucracy, would often approve a reform agenda. Yet there was a law of ‘diminishing effect of reform’. Hence the older the dynasty, the less effect reform had. Thus, in a short time the society would lose control and slip towards social catastrophe, marked by the decay of bureaucracy, social disorder, economic depression and large numbers of people without any means of subsistence.

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