Aurore: Pensées sur les préjugés moraux by Friedrich Nietzsche

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Dans Aurore (1881), Nietzsche poursuit l’entreprise de critique radicale de los angeles morale commencée dans Humain, trop humain, et pose ainsi les jalons d’un projet philosophique dont ses dernières œuvres, de Par-delà bien et mal à Ecce homo, seront le couronnement.

Le philosophe s’impose ici comme un travailleur des ténèbres, forant le fond de l. a. civilisation pour mettre au jour les origines plus ou moins nobles des idéaux, des croyances et des mœurs, saper les fondements de los angeles morale et faire vaciller nos certitudes. Prônant l. a. libération de l. a. pensée, il en appelle à l’affirmation de nouvelles valeurs. Et il nous montre, à travers cette série de fragments placés sous le signe de l. a. belle humeur, que l’étonnement et le scepticisme sont au principe de toute philosophie : « Un livre comme celui-ci n’est pas fait pour être lu d’un seul tenant ou à voix haute, mais pour être consulté, notamment en prom ou en voyage. On doit pouvoir sans cesse y mettre le nez, puis le relever, et ne plus rien trouver d’habituel autour de soi. »

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105–30). 3. For further discussion of Habermas’s conception of detranscendentalized reason and postmetaphysical thinking, see Chapter 2 in this volume. 4. Chapter 7 in this volume further addresses Habermas’s involvement in the student protests. 5. The later Habermas theorizes this phenomenon in terms of the colonization of the lifeworld by the system. See Chapter 4 in this volume. 6. For a discussion of Habermas’s linguistic turn and its development, see Chapter 3. 7. See Chapters 6, 7 and 9, respectively.

Habermas emphasizes further that philosophy is itself 36 P O S T M E TA P H Y S I C A L T H I N K I N G distorted by the drive to purify itself of reliance on the material world. 4 Postmetaphysical philosophy presupposes that there is no such observer-position available for the philosopher because we are all deeply conditioned by our historical contexts. 5 Our linguistic context is one of the most important features of this background, since it makes possible our philosophical projects; for Habermas, there is no way for us to get behind that, so to speak.

5 Our linguistic context is one of the most important features of this background, since it makes possible our philosophical projects; for Habermas, there is no way for us to get behind that, so to speak. 6 This “linguistic turn” in philosophy effectively shifted metaphysical thinking away from the solipsistic philosopher, instead conceiving of philosophy as a communicative process. Postmetaphysical philosophy still occupies a unique position and has a distinctive purpose, however, independent of empirical science.

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