By Wolfgang Demtröder

This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been constructed over the past centuries either by means of many experimental discoveries and, from the theoretical part, by means of the creation of quantum physics to the sufficient description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave version of debris via many examples and exhibits the boundaries of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its capability for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and particularly lasers as smooth spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra completely. Many examples and issues of ideas are provided to motivate readers to actively interact in utilising and adapting the elemental physics awarded during this textbook to precise situations.

Completely revised new version with new sections overlaying all real advancements, like x-ray optics, ion-cyclotron-resonance spectrometer, attosecond lasers, ultraprecission frequency dimension and atomic interferometry.

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**Additional resources for Atoms, Molecules and Photons: An Introduction to Atomic-, Molecular- and Quantum Physics**

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These resonantly enhanced sound waves are detected by a microphone Mi. The frequencies f 0,n of different resonances are measured. 9]. Since the acoustic losses of the spherical resonator are low, the resonances are very sharp and the resonance frequencies f0,n can be determined with high accuracy. Tuning the loudspeaker-frequency through several resonances from n = 1 to higher values the squares f0,n 2 of the resonance frequencies can be plotted against n2 which gives a straight line with the slope RκT/(Mr0 2 ).

2. 1 dm3 H2 and 1 dm3 Cl2 form 2 dm3 HCl gas. Amadeo Avogadro (1776–1856) (Fig. 6) explained these results by introducing the definition of molecules: A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that determines the properties of this substance. It is composed of two or more atoms. Referring to the experimental results of Gay-Lussac, Avogadro concluded: At equal pressures and temperatures, the same volume of different gases always contains the same number of molecules. With this hypothesis the two preceding examples are described by the reaction equations: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2 O , H2 + Cl2 → 2 HCl .

54) because the mean velocity of the atoms is v¯ = (8kT /π m)1/2 . 55) dt dz where λ is the coefficient of heat conduction. It is related to the specific heat cv of the gas at constant volume by 1 2cv kT m nmcv vΛ = . 56) 3 3σ π Measuring the coefficient λ therefore yields the collision cross section σ and with it the atomic radius. • Viscosity of a Gas If a velocity gradient dvy /dx exists in a gas flowing in the y-direction with the velocity vy , part of their momentum per unit volume d = r1 + r2 σ = π ⋅ d2 The above mentioned transport phenomena are directly related to .