By Professor Dr. Igor I. Sobelman (auth.)

**Atomic Spectra and Radiative Transitions **covers the systematics of atomic spectra, non-stop spectrum radiation, and the excitation of atoms. This moment variation has extra chapters on relativistic corrections within the spectra of hugely charged ions, which rounds off the former therapy. wide tables of oscillator strengths (both dipole and quadrupole), chances and move sections of radiative transitions whole this textbook, making it precious additionally as a reference work.

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**Sample text**

The configuration nsz. The spectra of these ions are therefore similar to the spectra of alkaline earth elements. 2 Configuration p2 Two equivalent p electrons outside filled shells appear in the ground configurations of the elements C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb. 1). In accordance with Rund's rule, the 44 3. , the term 3p . , the level J = 0 lies lowest. Electric dipole transitions between the terms 1So, 1D2 and the ground state term are forbidden by the selection rules with respect to parity. The terms np2 1So and np21D2 are therefore metastable.

The structure of lines of the fundamental series can easily be established in a similar way. According to the rule formulated above, the ratio of the intensities of doublet components originating from the levels jl andj2 equals (2jl + 1) : (2j2 + I). This ratio is 1:2 for the principal series. 4 Copper, Silver, and Gold Spectra The atoms of Cu, Ag,. and Au also have one ns electron outside filled shells in the ground state. The Ag atom is preceded in the periodic system by the Pd atom, the 4d shell of which is completely filled.

The set of terms of one multiplicity, obtained from the L S term of the initial electron configuration on adding to it one more electron, is called a polyad. Thus, in the example considered above, the terms npn'p ePJp 2S , 2p 2D and np'p[3P Jp 4S 4p 4D form two different polyads. It is not to easy to find the possible terms for configurations containing equivalent electrons. Among the values of L and S, there can appear those which correspond to states forbidden by the Pauly principle. Thus, for the configuration np3 there are possible only three terms 2D 2p 4S, in spite of the fact that for configuration npn'pn"p we have 21 terms.