By Massimo Inguscio, Leonardo Fallani
This ebook illustrates the heritage of Atomic Physics and exhibits how its latest advances let the opportunity of appearing unique measurements and attaining a correct regulate at the atomic kingdom. Written in an introductory kind, this ebook is addressed to complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to to more matured researchers who have to stay updated with the newest advances. The booklet makes a speciality of experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental thoughts, and discusses the implications and the demanding situations of latest study. Emphasis is wear the investigations of precision physics: from the choice of primary constants of Nature to exams of basic Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics; from the belief of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the appropriate simulation of condensed subject theories with ultracold gases. The publication discusses those issues whereas tracing the evolution of experimental Atomic Physics from conventional laser spectroscopy to the revolution brought by means of laser cooling, which permits the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a level above absolute 0 and divulges new frontiers of precision in atomic spectroscopy.
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Additional resources for Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter
1975). 3 for an introduction to nonlinear optics). The lower panel of Fig. , 1975). The measurement of the 1s Lamb shift represents an important QED test. As previously discussed in Sec. 3, in the case of the 2s state the shift could be measured from the removal of degeneracy with the nearby 2p state, which could be determined both by direct microwave excitation and by the ﬁne structure of the optical transitions. Instead, for n = 1 no level splittings are availabile and the 1s shift can only be deduced from the corrections to the frequency predicted by the Dirac theory for the ultraviolet 1s − 2s transition.
The extension of the frequency comb to the medium infrared is particularly important for applications in molecular spectroscopy (see Schliesser et al. (2012) for an updated review). , 2003). However, Optical frequency measurements 25 being the strongest molecular rovibrational transitions well beyond 2 μm wavelength, in the so-called “ﬁngerprint region”, diﬀerent approaches based on nonlinear optics had to be developed. , 2005). , 2008). , 2012). Generation of a free-space-propagating THz comb has been demonstrated very recently in the far-infrared range, by down-conversion of radiation from a mode-locked laser around 800 nm.
2010). The experiment was performed on a thermal beam of atomic hydrogen, the velocity distribution of which (responsible for the second-order Doppler shift) was characterized by measuring the quadratic Stark eﬀect induced by a static magnetic ﬁeld, appearing as an electric ﬁeld in the rest frame of the atoms. 5 × 10−12 fractional accuracy, mostly determined by the statistical error (which could be reduced by increasing the UV laser power). This result represents the best measurement of an optical transition in hydrogen after the MPQ measurement on the 1s − 2s transition.