Atomic Physics by Rebecca Childs.

By Rebecca Childs.

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Ten milligrams of a radioactive substance of half-life period two years is kept in store for four years. How much of the substance remains unchanged ? Solution: The time-interval in which the mass (or number of atoms) of a radioactive element decays to one half of its initial value, is called the ‘half-life’ of the element. Thus, if the initial quantity of a radioactive substance be N0, then the quantity N of the substance left after n half-lives is given by ⎛ 1⎞ n N = N0 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ . 2 Here 4 years N0 = 0 mgm and n = 2 years .

Shell of the same atom. , where Ek, EL,....... are the binding energies of, the electron in the K-, L-,....... shells respectively. ) Thus the process of internal conversion, which gives rise to β-ray line spectrum, is a direct transfer of excitation energy from the nucleus to one of the surrounding electrons. Since in the internal conversion the electrons do not come from the nucleus, the not a true form of β-disintegration. 4 A). They have no electric charge, and so they cannot be deflected by magnetic or electric fields.

Hence there occur 6 α-decays. 6 α-decays reduce the atomic number by 12. , there is also an increase of 4 in the atomic number. Hence there occur 4 β-decays. 3. Calculate the radioactive constant for an element whose half-life period is 20 years. Solution: The radioactive constant λ and the half-life period T of a radioactive element are related as λ = Here T = 20 years. 03465 per year. 4. 28 × l0–4 per year. 28 × 10 −4 / year = 1619 years. The mean-life is T = 1 1 = = 2336 years. 28 × 10 −4 / year 30 Encyclopaedia of Atomic Physics 5.

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