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Extra resources for Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Waters: Perspectives for Improved Approaches and Methods
A sub-group of the faecal streptococci, which is relatively tolerant of sodium chloride and alkaline pH, have been grouped under the genus Enterococcus. Most of the Enterococcus species are of faecal origin and can generally be regarded as specific indices of human faecal pollution for most practical purposes. Faecal streptococci are more resistant to stress and chlorination than E. coli and the other coliform bacteria. Although both faecal streptococci and enterococci remain in use as monitoring parameters in drinking water, enterococci appear likely to supplant faecal streptococci as the parameter of choice as they are clearly of faecal origin from warm blooded animals.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85(1), 432-440. B. and Gerba, C. (1991) Use of risk assessment for development of microbial standards. Water Science and Technology 24(2), 29-34. Rosen, J. and Ellis, B. (2000) The bottom line on the ICR Microbial data. Paper ST6-3 In: Proceedings of AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference 2000. Salt Lake City, Utah. Schardinger, F. (1892) Ueber das Vorkommen Gahrung Errengeneder Spaltpilze im drinkwasser und ihre Bedeutung for die Hygienishe Beurthelung Desselben.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 47-54. , Ong, C. and Nulsen, M. (1994) A second community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis in Canada and serological investigation of patients. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 395-399. Koch, R. (1893) Ueber denaugenblicklichen stand der bakeriologischen Cholera diagnose. Zeitschift für Hygiene XIV, 319. , Dominguez, L. and Mollby, R. (2000) Epidemiology and ecology of enterococci, with special reference to antibiotic resistant strains, in animals, humans and the environment.