Archaeology - An Introduction by Dr Kevin Greene

By Dr Kevin Greene

This bestselling booklet has firmly proven itself because the so much available advisor to archaeology to be had. It features:
* an evidence to the invention and excavation of sites
* a priceless define of the foremost courting methods
* transparent reasons of medical techniques
* new theories and present controversies
* explanatory diagrams and photos
* tips on additional interpreting and up to date bibliography.

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The failing grip of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century also stimulated the exploration of Greek civilization. Greece gained its independence in 1831 and foreign excavators rapidly The Idea of the Past cleared the Acropolis of Athens, releasing the remains of such buildings as the Erechtheum and Parthenon from the encumbrances of a harem and mosque respectively (fig. 13). This action also illustrates that archaeological research is highly selective when combined with nationalism. Societies tend to select the past that they wish to emphasize; the removal of physical reminders of Turkish rule and its religion, Islam, allowed the new Greek nation to underline its connections with the European roots of classical culture.

The simplest (and oldest) procedure is fieldwalking, which relies upon the observation of minor fluctuations in the character of the ground surface, and, where possible, the recognition of ancient artefacts lying upon it. If fieldwalking is conducted systematically the results can be analysed to reveal significant patterns of finds. The area selected for examination is marked out with a regular grid for the guidance of teams of walkers, to ensure that the ground is inspected evenly. 2–3). If an area is too large to be explored in its entirety, it should be sampled in such a way that the results may be assessed statistically, and extrapolated to the whole area with some confidence; computer programs now allow this to be done with ease.

Because of the laborious procedure involved, resistivity is best suited to the detection of linear features such as roads, walls or ditches by taking measurements along a straight line at 90° to their suspected position. Some electromagnetic instruments measure soil conductivity without probes, and although less sensitive they have proved particularly successful on arid sites in desert areas. 2 Magnetic surveying Magnetometers also detect deviations from the general background of the subsoil, in this case indicated by variations in its magnetic field.

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