By R. Miller
An excessive charged particle beam will be characterised as an prepared charged particle circulation for which the consequences of beam self-fields are of significant value in describing the evolution of the circulation. learn utilizing such beams is now a speedily starting to be box with vital functions starting from the advance of excessive strength assets of coherent radiation to inertial confinement fusion. significant courses have now been validated at numerous laboratories within the usa and nice Britain, in addition to within the USSR, Japan, and several other japanese and Western ecu international locations. additionally, similar learn actions are being pursued on the graduate point at a number of universities within the US and in a foreign country. while the writer first entered this box in 1973 there has been no unmarried reference textual content that supplied a huge survey of the real issues, but contained adequate element to be of curiosity to the lively researcher. That scenario has endured, and this booklet is an try and fill the void. As such, the textual content is geared toward the graduate pupil, or starting researcher; even though, it includes abundant details to be a handy reference resource for the complex worker.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams
Substituting Eq. 32) into Eq. 28) yields . 33) Sec. 3 • Qualitative Behavior of Charged Particle Beams 23 Hence, the unneutralized beam self-fields cause the beam to expand, while the Bo supplies a restoring force. 6 kG; however, for a I-MeV proton beam of the same density Bo must exceed 188 kG. Hence, solenoidal magnetic fields can easily satisfy the equilibrium condition for vacuum transport of intense electron beams, but charge neutralization is usually required for intense ion beam transport.
Finally, the condition is reached when most of the electrons which leave the cathode surface are reflected by the potential barrier (curve IV). Since the applied field causes those electrons which pass the barrier to leave the interelectrode space, the barrier breaks down (curve V) and the process repeats. Such time-dependent behavior can be considered as a self-regulating switch that allows a certain average current (the space-charge-limited current) to flow. ) K t ...... c ..... 6. Electrostatic potential in a one-dimensional diode including the effects of the electron space charge.
Microscopic view of the local electric field enhancement at the tip of a whiskerlike protrusion on the cathode surface. surface may be enhanced by a factor of several hundred over the macroscopic electric field (Fig. 4). Such field enhancement leads to significant electron field emissions from the micropoints, and can cause whisker evaporation due to excessive Joule heating. The four basic energy exchange phenomena which control the temperature at the whisker tip include the following I3 : (I) volumetric resistive heating due to the current flowing toward the emitter tip; (2) emissive heating or cooling because the average energy of the emitted electrons is generally different from the average energy of the conduction electrons in the cathode (the Nottingham effect)14; (3) radiative cooling; and (4) cooling due to thermal conduction toward the support structure.