By Diana M. Goodwin (auth.)
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Neuropsychology
BOXER'S SYNDROME: believed to result from cumulative effects of cerebral concussion and subsequent cortical atrophy; also known as punch-drunk syndrome. BOYD DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESS SCALE: (Boyd, 1974) assesses adaptive behavior in three areas: motor, communication, and self-sufficiency; appropriate for evaluations early in recovery from brain injury. BP: blood pressure. BRADYCARDIA: slowness of heart beat to less than 60. BRADYKINESIA: abnormal slowness of movement; sluggishness of physical and mental responses.
B BA: behavioral age. BABCOCK STORY RECALL TEST: memory test (Babcock, 1930; Babcock & Levy, 1940). BABINSKI'S LAW: law of voltaic vertigo that a normal subject inclines to the side of the positive pole; one with disease of the labyrinth falls to the side to which he tends to incline spontaneously. If the labyrinth is destroyed, there is no reaction. 32 B BABINSKI'S REFLEX: dorsiflexion of the big toe and spreading of the other toes when the sole of the foot is stimulated; occurs in lesions of the pyramidal tract (corticospinal); indicates organic, as distinguished from hysteric, hemiplegia; also called Babinski's sign or toe sign.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS: an extremely common form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of yellowish plaques (atheromas) containing cholesterol, lipoid material, and lipophages are formed within the intima and inner media oflarge and medium-sized arteries. ATHETOSIS: a derangement marked by ceaseless occurrence of slow, sinuous, writhing movements, especially severe in the hands, and performed involuntarily; may occur after hemiplegia, and then is known as posthemiplegic chorea; also called mobile spasm; characterized by an inability to sustain the fingers and toes, tongue, or any other group of muscles in one position; purposeless movements; most pronounced in the digits and the hands, but often involves the tongue, throat, and face; lesion(s) of anterior thalamus or ventricular nuclei with intact pyramidal tracts; see also dystonia.