By George S. Everly Jr.
This re-creation emphasizes the original contribution of this longstanding text within the integration of mind/body relationships. the idea that of pressure, as outlined and elaborated in bankruptcy 1, the first efferent organic mechanisms of the human tension reaction, as defined in bankruptcy 2, and the hyperlink from rigidity arousal to sickness, as outlined in bankruptcy three, basically is still an identical. even though, updates in microanatomy, biochemistry and tomography are extra to those chapters. All different chapters might be up-to-date in addition, as there was major adjustments within the box over the last 8 years.
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Additional info for A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response
Upon neural stimulation, the adrenal medulla releases the medullary catecholamines as just described. The effect of these medullary catecholamines is an increase in generalized adrenergic somatic activity in human beings (Folkow & Neil, 1971; Maranon, 1924; Wenger, Clemens, Coleman, Cullan & Engel, 1960). 3), except that the medullary catecholamines require a 20- to 30- second delay of onset for measurable effects and display a tenfold increase in effect duration (Usdin, Kretnansky, & Kopin, 1976).
I ~ THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HUMAN STRESS RESPONSE 25 of the two categories: (1) psychosocial stressors and (2) biogenic stressors (Girdano & Everly, 1986). Psychosocial stressors are either real or imagined environmental events that "set the stage" for the elicitation of the stress response. They cannot directly "cause" the stress response, but must work through cognitive appraisal mechanics. Most stressors are, indeed, psychosocial stressors. " Biogenic stressors, however, are stressors that actually "cause" the elicitation of the stress response.
Testosterone is the primary male androgenic hormone. This brings us to a discussion of the third and final stress response mechanism-the endocrine axes. Endocrine Axes The most chronic and prolonged somatic responses to stress are the result of the endocrine axes (Mason, 1968b). Four well-established endocrine axes have been associated with the stress response: 1. 2. 3. 4. The The The The adrenal cortical axis somatotropic axis thyroid axis posterior pituitary axis These axes not only represent the most chronic aspects of the stress response, but also require greater intensity stimulation to activate (Levi, 1972).