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Extra resources for 32.Lightwave Technology
All these methods require the solutions of only two slab waveguides and, therefore, have the same degree of efﬁciency. Accurate numerical data calculated from a ﬁnite element method (41) are used as the references. Figure 11 shows clearly that the effective-index method with built-in perturbation correction is signiﬁcantly more accurate than Marcatili’s method and the conventional effective-index method, and slightly more accurate than Marcatili’s method with perturbation correction. More numerical data for rectangularcore waveguides can be found in references 39 and 40.
7(a) (35). The effective-index method. The idea of the effectiveindex method is to replace the rectangular-core waveguide Figure 8. (a) In Marcatili’s method, the rectangular-core waveguide in Fig. 7(a) is replaced by two slab waveguides. (b) The structure that is actually analyzed by the method differs from the original structure in having lower indices in the four corner regions. by an equivalent slab waveguide with an effective refractive index obtained from another slab waveguide (34, 36). The effective-index method only requires solutions for two slab waveguides and is as efﬁcient as Marcatili’s method.
In fact, it is possible to design an anisotropic waveguide to support only one class of modes, and thus function as a waveguide polarizer or a mode ﬁlter (23). Metal-Clad Waveguides The three-layer structure shown in Fig. 2(a) becomes a metal-clad waveguide, when metal is employed as the cover material. At the optical frequency, the refractive index of metal is a complex number with a predominant negative imaginary part. 04. Because of the complex nature of the refractive index, optical waves are attenuated when penetrating into the metal cover.