An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases (Cambridge by James Jeans

By James Jeans

This booklet could be defined as a student's version of the author's Dynamical conception of Gases. it really is written, despite the fact that, with the wishes of the scholar of physics and actual chemistry in brain, and people elements of which the curiosity was once commonly mathematical were discarded. this doesn't suggest that the publication comprises no severe mathematical dialogue; the dialogue specifically of the distribution legislations is sort of distinctive; yet in general the math is anxious with the dialogue of specific phenomena instead of with the dialogue of basics.

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159. 32 A PRELIMINARY SURVEY observations by H. Fletcher* gave the value Nt = 6*03 x 1023, with a probable error of about 2 per cent of the whole, but a still more recent determination by Pospisilf gives Nx = 6-22 x 1023. From experiments on the Brownian movements of his torsionbalance (§5), Kappler deduced as the value of Boltzmann's constant (see equation (60) below), R = 1-36 x 10~16. Combining this with the relation pv = NRT, we can deduce as the value ofN0, & = 2-67 x 1019. Kappler estimated the probable error of his determination of R to be 3 per cent, so that there is a certain element of luck in the agreement between this and the true value of No.

We have N2RT N3RT A PRELIMINARY SURVEY 29 Thus the pressure exerted by a mixture of different gases is equal to the sum of the pressures which would be exerted by the constituents separately, which again brings us to Dalton's law (§ 8). We have already noticed that when the temperature is kept constant, p varies inversely as v (Boyle's law); equation (19) shews further that when the volume is kept constant, p varies as T, the absolute thermodynamic temperature (Charles' law). Further, when p is kept constant, v varies as T\ if a mass of gas is kept at constant pressure, its volume will change in exact proportionality with the absolute temperature.

The exact law of reflection, although immaterial for the calculation of normal pressure, is of importance when tangential stresses have to be estimated, as in the flow of gases through tubes (§§ 143, 144 below). Langmuirf and others have supposed that when a gas is in contact with a solid, those molecules of the gas which collide with the surface of the solid are either partially or wholly adsorbed by the solid, and subsequently re-emitted by the surface in a manner which does not depend on their history before adsorption took place; the molecule, so to speak, ends one life when it strikes the boundary and after an interval starts out again on a new existence.

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