Accessible XHTML and CSS Web Sites. Problem Design, Solution by Jon Duckett

By Jon Duckett

  • Shows internet builders how one can make the transition from HTML to XHTML, an XML-based reformulation of HTML that gives better layout flexibility
  • Demonstrates tips to paintings with CSS (Cascading type Sheets)-now supported by way of 90 percentage of browsers and essential to new site-building instruments from Macromedia and others-and enforce a constant type all through and full web site
  • Explains find out how to make a website available to individuals with impaired imaginative and prescient, constrained hand use, dyslexia, and different issues-now a criminal requirement for plenty of websites within the U.S. and the U.K.

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XML is a language that is used to write markup languages (and is therefore sometimes referred to as a meta-markup language). When the W3C was making these changes, XML was gaining wide acceptance in all areas of programming; it can be used on any platform because (like HTML) it uses plain text to hold the data, and it has been one of the most widely used new technologies in the past decade. Reformulating HTML in XML would prepare the language for the next decade and beyond. 0, the W3C decided to highlight the new family of 12 Introducing the Site documents by calling it XHTML (rather like Microsoft released Windows XP instead of Windows 2003, or Macromedia released Dreamweaver MX instead of Dreamweaver 6).

Making HTML compliant with the rules of XML has many advantages. You will learn more about these advantages in Chapters 2 and 8, but they include the following: ❑ ❑ XML requires a stricter syntax than HTML did — as you will see in Chapter 2. This in turn has other advantages: ❑ Browser manufacturers can write smaller browsers that can handle the XHTML pages. These smaller browsers are ideal for small devices that do not have as much memory or power available to them as desktop computers. ❑ You can perform complex operations, processing, and transformation upon the data held within the XHTML page.

Many computer users with visual impairments use devices known as screen readers to read the content of the screen to them. These devices have complicated sets of keyboard shortcuts that enable the user to operate the software without necessarily seeing what is on the screen. Screen readers are just one of the many types of devices available to users with disabilities, and in many countries it is now a legal requirement that all Web pages are accessible to those with disabilities. Some of the problems facing users with visual impairments when visiting Web sites include the following: 10 ❑ Tables are used for layout, and often screen readers process tables in a way that makes pages hard to understand, reading things to users in the wrong order.

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