A Theory of Freedom by Stanley I. Benn

By Stanley I. Benn

This ebook is a massive contribution to the research of the philosophy of motion, ethical philosophy, and political philosophy. Its primary thought is a considerably unorthodox conception of rational motion. such a lot modern Anglo-American philosophers think that motion is encouraged via wish. Professor Benn rejects the doctrine and replaces it with a reformulation of Kant's moral and political conception, within which rational motion could be decided just by ideas, despite results. The ebook analyzes the way price conflicts might be rationally resolved, the objectivity of price, the idea that of ethical character, the foundations of non-interference and appreciate of individuals, the beliefs of autonomy and group and diverse elements of person rights--focusing at the rights to freedom, welfare, and privateness.

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As between external and internal reasons. A person holding certain false beliefs might be said to have a reason for holding certain other beliefs those false beliefs entail, though just because they are false there is also a reason not to hold them or their entailments. Equally, if certain propositions are true, there is a reason to hold what they entail, but someone 23 A THEORY OF FREEDOM who doesn't believe the premises has, in one sense at least, no reason to believe the conclusion. And correspondingly with action.

A conflict of commitments does not imply, however, that one must make a reasonless choice, nor is it like being confronted by a contradiction or a paradox. One does not have to choose one horn of a logical dilemma. It is more like deciding what to believe when there is some evidence in support of one theory and some of another, yet both cannot be true. The conflict is set in the context of a set of wider beliefs, and the materials for its resolution are to be looked for from among these. Precisely because the rationality of an action is taken to depend on its consistency with the whole of 31 A THEORY OF FREEDOM one's belief system, an action commitment arising from one belief can be overridden only by one arising from another.

But these may be thought to be very special cases. For the remainder of the vast range of our action commitments - political, religious, selfish, or altruistic - some kind of personal affirmation or active commitment to an end may still be thought necessary. After all, one may understand that friends help one another when in need, and one may believe that Alan is one of one's friends and is in need, yet it may be thought nevertheless that no commitment to help Alan follows from this, unless one is also committed to friendship by some kind of personal affirmation or by virtue of having a proattitude to friendship, or affirming that friendship is a good thing.

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